Revisión bibliográfica: obesidad infanto juvenil y cirugía bariátrica
Margarita Sánchez Chacón1, Nicolás Von Jentschyk Rojas1, Álvaro Rodríguez Vega1, Rodrigo Casals Aguirre2.
1 Internos de Medicina, Universidad de Chile
2 Departamento de Cirugía Hospital de Niños Roberto del Rio
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in pediatric patients has sharply increased in recent decades, that is associated with short and long term complications that imply a worsening in the quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality mainly associated with cardiovascular disease.
The initial management of a patient with overweight is primarily based on diet and regular physical activity. However, in cases of severe obesity, changes in lifestyle are insufficient for weight reduction, existing in most cases weight gain. In these cases, bariatric surgery is a complementary therapeutic option to medical treatment.
There are several surgical techniques that modify the anatomy and/or function of the gastrointestinal tract used in the treatment of obesity. These methods act by restricting stomach capacity, interfering with the progression of food, or deviation of ingested in a region of the gastrointestinal tract to other content. Currently, the most widely used procedures in obese teenagers include gastric bypass Roux, adjustable gastric banding, and finally sleeve gastrectomy. There are not studies evaluating long-term complications.
Indications for bariatric surgery in adolescents are based on the degree of obesity, the presence of comorbidities and the failure of multidisciplinary medical treatment, among others.